Caring for the Elderly in Singapore: Are We Doing Enough?
After reading last week’s news about an 82-year-old Singaporean man being abandoned by his family in Johor Bahru, I decided to do a bit of research on the state of elderly care in Singapore.
Let’s start by looking at the living arrangements of elderly residents in Singapore, defined as citizens and permanent residents aged 65 and above.
From the chart below, you can see that elderly residents who live with their spouses and/or children constitute around 85% of the total elderly population.
The remaining 15% either live alone, with other elderly persons, or have other living arrangements (such as living in nursing homes etc.).
In fact, the percentage of elderly residents who live in old folks’ homes has been consistently low at 2.7% to 3% of the total elderly population from 2001 to 2011 (calculated from Yearbook of Statistics Singapore 2012, tables 3.3 & 22.6).
The bar chart below depicts the distribution of elderly residents in different types of old folks’ homes from 2001 to 2011.
The orange line shows how the elderly population has grown over the same period. It appears that the increase in the number of elderly residents in old folks’ homes is largely in tandem with the growth in elderly population, if slightly lower.
(Yearbook of Statistics Singapore 2012, tables 3.3 & 22.6). Refer to this, pp. 80-81 for the definitions of the various types of elderly care services and institutions.
All seems well if we look at statistics alone: the percentage of elderly residents who live in old folks’ homes in the past decade has been low at below 3% of the total elderly population.
But is this consistently low percentage an indication of a low demand for nursing home places and/or a supply of nursing home places that has kept up with demand over the last 10 years, despite our rapidly aging population?
On the Contrary…
Not so if we go by news reports, which paint a not-so-rosy picture.
From various sources (click on links below), we can gather that in recent years:
1) Families have had a hard time getting a place for their elderly in Singapore nursing homes; the waiting time can be more than 6 months;
2) Singapore nursing homes have raised their fees and more people have defaulted on payment;
3) There have been cases of elderly residents being ill-treated in Singapore nursing homes (here and here);
4) More Singaporeans have turned to nursing homes in Johor Bahru (JB) and demand is growing; unfortunately we do not have figures of the number of elderly Singaporeans in JB nursing homes;
5) The estimated charges at local nursing homes (before subsidy) range from SGD1200 to SGD3500 per month. In JB, the charges are around SGD600 to SGD1000.
6) The cost of putting an elderly in JB nursing homes is considerably lower than that in Singapore. According to Khaw Boon Wan, “The monthly cost of keeping a resident in a private nursing home in Singapore, you can stretch it easily to pay at least 2-1/2 months of nursing home care in Johor Baru.”
7) This is despite a reported increase in government subsidies to the needy to defray nursing home cost. A Ministry of Health spokesperson said, “Along with Medifund and charity assistance, most needy patients and families would either see no change in charges or see a decrease in out-of-pocket payment of up to 35 per cent.”
Restrictive Admission Criteria and Inadequate Supply
The demand for nursing home beds may also be suppressed at artificially low levels because of the highly restrictive admission criteria. This is in line with the government policy of deferring institutional care such that it is a last resort for families (source).
To be admitted into a local nursing home, the elderly must fulfill these criteria (source):
- Have physical or mental disabilities because of medical conditions like stroke, dementia and other chronic illnesses;
- Semi-mobile, wheelchair or bed-bound and need daily nursing care and help in daily living activities such as toileting, walking, etc;
- Tried all possible care arrangements such as hiring a domestic helper, day care, home care, etc;
- Not able to be cared for at home by other family members or community providers;
- Pass the means-test for long-term care subsidies
In other words, my earlier bar chart of the number of residents in old folks’ homes does not indicate demand. Instead, it may well be a more or less accurate reflection of the supply of places in old folks’ homes over the years, in lieu of official figures (except this).
And one big puzzle remains looking at the graph below. While we expect less mobile elderly persons to require round-the-clock care and thus are more likely to be living in institutions such as nursing homes, the graph shows otherwise.
Of the non-ambulant elderly residents, only 9.1% or less may be living under institutional care.
Is this seeming paradox a result of the scarcity of nursing home beds or the stringent admission criteria mentioned above? Or is this phenomenon simply due to the valorization of “filial piety” in our society? Has this imposed undue burden and stress upon the family caregiver(s)? Most importantly, has this compromised the quality of care given to the elderly resident?
If you are a social worker or have first-hand experience seeking a nursing home bed for your family member(s), please feel free to share your insights in the comments column below.
There is a slight wait but on the whole
a) there is places available
b) the question is where
c) at what price
d) definition of convenience eg any place reachable within 1 hour or is it Singapore definition of 30 minutes drive.
Managed to get one within 1 month ie 2 weeks or less and within 30 minutes drive and at reasonable cost
To me that is reasonable but to someone who expects instant results as in place must be there now and the price he/she likes.
For those who willingly abandon their own elder folks, may they suffer the same fate soon.
That is good to know and your experience sounds reasonable indeed. May I ask if you receive any subsidy and did you/your family member go through a screening process to determine his/her eligibility?
Totally agree with your last statement.
Wow so u send them away to nursing homes, good job.
sometimes, they might have relatives across the causeway who can provide more emotional support and visitation at the jb nursing home.
i have some experience of nursing homes in Singapore. I came back from overseas and found my late father sick and weak without food in his room. I brought him to the hospital and he was admitted with severe lung infection. I will never forget how he cried and asked for food. I had to place him in a nursing home after his discharged due to shortage of beds in the hospital although he was sick very sick and weak. The doctor had to insert a feeding tube though his nose. I was staying in a hotel and had to make immediate decision to put him in a nursing home soonest possible. As I was almost like a foreigner, being away for more than 15 years and had no idea what is a nursing home like in Singapore? I had to run around looking for a suitable nursing home for him. The social worker in the hospital recommended the most expensive place, causing me $2,800++ for home fee, plus milk and diapers etc, amounting to a monthly sum of $4,000-$5,000. It is really expensive, the care and service provided is not what you see. For those who place their elderly folks in the nursing home, they should monitor and visit them as frequently as possible. I personally have seen patients left alone in nursing home are badly treated behind the screen. I am still very sad that my late father had to be placed in a nursing home and left to fend for himself. He was bed-bound and often had his diaper soiled for hours before the nurse had the time to change him especially in the night when there was one staff on duty, also left sitting in a chair naked waiting for his showers. There is a lack of staff in most nursing homes but why do they take in so many patients which they cannot cope.
I do agree with you. It is very costly. A proper nursing home will cost about $2000+ and up and that’s excluding any other supplies that they require such as the milk powder or adult diapers, wheelchairs etc.
If you want assistance, you can check out http://seniorcare.com.sg. They can deliver the necessities to you and their prices are very reasonable.
I sure hope your father’s condition is better. It’s a heartache hearing these stories.
Have you considered home care? Your father can definitely stay with you and you can get advice from professional nurses that go to your home. With $4000-5000 a month, and with all the frequent checks you do, you can get a lot of value from home care nurses! Not only are they able to care for your father on a daily basis, they can also train family caregivers or domestic helpers at the same time too! You can check out: http://www.jaga-me.com
I’ve been researching this issue and noticed a factual error.The ‘Living Arrangement of Elderly’ survey sampled only households living in residential homes. So it naturally excludes those living in eldercare institutions.
All other points are valid and well-made, and an interesting read.
We are told by social worker that it takes 1-2 years wait to get a nursing home bed for my father in law. Is it true? I tried to find out the current charges & occupancy rates in the net but to no avail.. anyone know where to find such information?
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